“神  似”说   

          

                                  孙迎春

                       

    “愚对译事看法实甚简单:重神似不重形似”,这是著名翻译家傅雷在196316日写给译论家罗新璋的一封信中提出的。这一名论,言简意赅,在我国翻译史上写下了重重的一笔。                                                                                        

                                          

       然而,“神似”说的基本思想,却是源远流长,由来已久了。

    早在1921年,茅公即在他担任编务的综合性文学刊物《小说月报》(第12 卷第4号)上,发表了《译文学书方法的讨论》一文,并在文中提出一个亟当明审的问题:

       “在‘神韵’与‘形貌’未能两全的时候,到底应该重‘神韵’呢, 还是重‘形貌’?”

         茅公接下去回答道:

        “就我的私见下个判断, 觉得与其失‘神韵’而留‘形貌’还不如‘形貌’上有些差异而保留了‘神韵’。文学的功用在感人,(如使人同情使人慰乐)而感人的力量恐怕还是寓于‘神韵’的多而寄在‘形貌’的少;译本如不能保留原本的‘神韵’,难免要失了许多的感人力量。”

    八年之后,陈西滢在《论翻译》(《新月》1929年第2卷第        Eight years later Chen Xiying issued a bitter,violent attack on the translation criteria "faithfulness,expressiveness and elegance" raised

4 号)中对西学圣人严复的信达雅,作了一番言辞激烈的批评,by Yan Fu, Sage of the Western Scholarship,in his essay "On Translation" (published in  The New Moon ,No.4,Vol.2,1929),and  he 结论是:“译文学作品只有一个条件,那便是要‘信’。”他concluded:"There is only one requirement for translating literary works,i.e. 'faithfulness'." Taking producing a statue and drawing a   以塑像和画像来作比,将肖像的信,分为形似,意似,神似三portrait for an analogy,he divided the faithfulness followed in creating portraits into three different planes reached by artists:formal,notional 种不同的境界,并进而论述了翻译的三似。

and spiritual similarites,and proceeded to expound the three similarities in the sphere of translation.

        1933年,林语堂在《论翻译》中说:“译者所应忠实的,          In his essay "On Translation" published in 1933,Lin Yutang stated:"What the translator should be faithful to are not the separate 不是原文的零字, 乃零字所组成的语意。忠实的第二义,   words of the original but the meaning they form.The second semantic aspect of faithfulness is that the translator is required not only to      就是译者不但须求达意,并且须以传神为目的。”“达意传transfer meaning,but to set the conveyance of spirit as his aim."Hence the prevalence of the saying "transfer of meaning and conveyance of

神”遂为译界所称道。

spirit".

        然而,这些也只是“神似”说在现代翻译史上的源流。

     These discussions,however,were nothing but the source and        stream of the theory of "spiritual similarity" in the modern history of translation.                            

                                         

                               II

       “神似”本为诗画评语,是与“形似”相对而言的,指               Against "formal similarity","spiritual similarity" was originally an expression employed in commenting upon poems and drawings,  诗、画在写人或物时,不仅应求得“形似”,而且应在此基础referring to the spirit-conveying realm,in which,when one represented a man or an object by means of a poem or a drawing,one should not 上进而表现出人、物的神态、气韵,达到维妙维肖的传神境 only achieve "formal similarity",but represent on this basis the bearing and artistic conception of the man or the object so that it would be 地。

strikingly true to life or nature.

       形神问题是中国先秦以来的哲学中常在讨论的问题。 荀子          The problem of spirit and form had kept cropping up in the   philosophical discussions ever since the pre-Qin period.Nevertheless,谈到过“形”与“神”,但仅仅是从哲学上来讲的,并未涉及though the philosopher Xunzi once talked about "form" and "spirit",he used the concepts only in philosophical sense,without touching  艺术。孟子、《周易》都讲到了具有美学意义的“神”,但未upon art.Mencius and Book of Changes spoke of the "spirit"with an aesthetic sense,but they did not clearly expose the relation between 明确地讲过“神”与“形”的关系。

"spirit" and "form".

       关于艺术创作中形神关系的论述,始见于西汉淮南王刘安           The discussion on the spirit-form relation in artistic creation was seen first in "Shuo Shan Xun" in  Huai Nan Zi  written by Prince

(前179-前122 )及其门客所著的《淮南子.说山训》:“画Huainan Liu An(179B.C.-122B.C.)and his hangers-on in the Western 西施之面,美而不可悦;规孟贲之目,大而不可畏,君形者亡Han Dynasty:"The face of Xishi is drawn——pretty but not entrancing;The eyes of Meng Bi are painted——big but not      焉。”“神”与“形”在这里被比作“君”与“臣”,是主宰frightening: Lacking is the monarch of form.""Spirit" and "form" are compared here to "monarch" and "subject" respectively,one            与被主宰的关系。亦即神为形之“君”,艺术作品不仅要描绘dominating,the other dominated.That is,spirit is the "monarch" of form,so artistic works are not only to prtray the physical shape of the 形体,而且要表现出主宰形体的“君”,即传神,不然即便是object,but represent the "monarch" who dominates the physical existence,i.e. convey the spirit,otherwise,even if you draw the         画西施那样的绝色,也会因其无神,令人觉得形象尽管很美,greatest beauty Xishi,for lack of spirit,the image may impress people as pretty but without the charm that touch people to the heart;when 却无摇撼心灵之魅力,画战国勇士孟贲的眼睛,虽画得很大,you paint the eyes of the warrior Meng Bi in the Warring States period,too,for lack of spirit,they may impress people as big but not  也因无神而不能让人望而生畏。是为我国古籍关于创作中形神awe-inspiring at sight.This is the earliest brilliant exposition on the relation between spirit and form in artistic creation carried in the

关系的最早的精辟论述。

classical works of our country.

       明确提出“传神”概念,并对其在绘画中的作用加以特别          It was the Eastern Jin painter Gu Kaizhi (approximately 345-        406),remarked by people as being "unique in talents,painting and 强调的,是人称“才绝、画绝、痴绝”的东晋画家顾恺之(约infatuation",who explicitly put forward the concept of "conveying spirit" and laid a special stress upon the role it played in drawing.    345-406)。此公画人物, 有数年不点眼睛者,问其故,他说:When he drew portraits of figures,this revered gentleman left the eyes undrawn sometimes for several years.When asked why he would say:“四体妍媸,本无关于妙处。传神写照,正在阿堵之中。”      "It does not concern the exquisiteness of art whether the four limbs are beautifully drawn or not.The excellent conveyance of spirit and “阿堵”即这个,指眼睛。双目乃心灵的窗口,画得好,才能portrayal of a figure consists just in this." The word "this" referred to eyes.Eyes are the windows of one's heart,so only when they are      drawn well can you "excellently convey the spirit and exquisitely

取得“传神写照”的效果。

portray the image of a figure.

       “形神”关系的论述,“传神”概念的提出, 又与魏晋人          The exposition of the relation between "spirit and form" and the proposition of the concept of "conveying spirit" was also interwoven 物品藻和佛学的发展有着密不可分的联系。不了解当时的人物with the personage appraisal in the Wei and Jin Dynasties and the development of Buddhism.Without some knowledge of the personage品藻和佛学的发展状况,就无法弄清来龙去脉,无从把握其实appraisal at the time and the development of Buddhism,it will not be possible to understand the origin and development of the aesthetic 质。

notion and grasp the essence.

       人物品藻,亦即对人物的德行、才能、风采等方面的品               Personage appraisal,i.e. comments on a person's moral integrity,talents,graceful bearing,etc.,was not an aesthetic problem in itself,评, 本身并不是一个美学问题,但和美学有不可忽视的关系。but had a relation with aesthetics not to be neglected.It produced a direct momentous influence,especially in the period of Wei,Jin and

特别在魏晋南北朝时期,它对审美的意识、趣味、好尚的变Northern and Southern Dynasties,upon the changes in aesthetic consciousness,tastes and likes,upon the development of artistic    化,艺术的鉴赏、创造的发展,以至诸如“传神”等许多重要appreciation and creation,and even upon the formation of such

美学概念的形成,都产生了直接的重大影响。

important aesthetic concepts as "conveying spirit".

       人物品藻虽然古已有之,但只是到了汉末魏初, 才开始和          Although there had been personage appraisal in ancient times,it was only the end of Han and Beginning of Wei that began to see its 现实的政治密切相关,受到普遍重视。曹操先后下了四次求贤close relationship with the real politics and universal importance attached to it.Cao Cao issued four orders of seeking talents all to the 令,要旨都是“唯才是举”,重才轻德。正是在这种背景    effect that "talents only were wanted" and "importance was attached to ability rather than morality".It was just against such a background 下,自建安到魏初的人物品藻具有两个鲜明的特点:一是把人that the personage appraisal in the period from the Jian'an years to the beginning of Wei showed two distinct features:One consists in

物的才能放在第一位,二是竭力要找到实际考察分析人物才能placing the ability of people in the first place,and the other striving to find ways and standards employed in the actual assessment and

的方法和标准。这样,专门研究人物的著作,刘劭(182-245analysis of people's talents. Records of Personages  by Liu Shao(182-245),a book specialized in personages,thus emerged as the times     的《人物志》应运而生。 《人物志》系统总结了汉末以来品评required.The book systematically summed up the experience and theory accumulated since the end of Han Dynasty on personage      人物的经验和理论,把它发展和提高到了哲学的高度。刘在深appraisal ,and developed and raised it to a philosophical level.Based on a profound analysis,Liu distinguished five aspects: bearing ()

入分析中,区分出仪、容、声、色、神等五个方面并提出所谓

look(容),voice(声),complexion(色) and spirit(神)and proposed the so-called "nine symbols of quality": spirit(神),

 “九质之征”:神、精、筋、骨、气、色、仪、容、言。他指energy(精),muscle(筋),bone(骨),breath(气),complex-ion(色),bearing(仪),look(容)and language(言).

出“夫色见于貌,所谓征神。征神见貌,则情发于目。”又   He pointed out,"Complexion can be seen on the face,the so-called symbol of spirit.Feelings are recognizable in the eyes as well as the symbol of spirit is discernible on the face." He added,"Every object说:“物生有形,形有神精;能知精神,则穷理尽性。”刘所comes into the world with a form (body),which is endowed with spirit and energy;If you are able to know energy and spirit,then you understand principles and natures to the greatest extent."The "spirit" 说的“神”,已不是单纯的伦理道德精神,而是与曹操对    discussed by Liu did not purely refer to ethical and moral spirit,but to something connected with Cao Cao's emphasis on "ability",with the “才”的强调相联系,中心是个体的智慧、才能和性格。不仅focus on the wisdom,talents and disposition of individuals.There was a significant historical change in that people were observed not only 仅从伦理道德的观点来看人,而是把个体的智慧、才能、性格from the perspective of moral principles ,but the wisdom,talents and disposition of individuals were put in an important position,thus       提到了重要位置,这是重大的历史性变化,使形神问题明显地obviously endowing the issue of spirit and form with a theoretical

有了能与艺术、美学相通的理论意义。

significance and rendering it mutually open with art and aesthetics.

       顾恺之提出“传神”概念,又明显同佛学的发展相关,          The concept of "conveying spirit" proposed by Gu Kaizhi was       also related with the development of Buddhism since "conveying     为“传神”原本是佛学用语。六朝时期,由于广建寺院、大造spirit" was originally an expression of the religion.On account of the fact that monasteries were put up in large numbers and figures of    佛像,佛教得到了广泛传播,佛学理论的研究,也日益深入。Buddha made everywhere in the period of Six Dynasties,Buddhism was extensively propagated and the research into Buddhist theories ,too,became more and more profound.

       东晋高僧慧远(334-416)早年博通六经,尤善老庄,后从          Huiyuan (334-416),an eminent monk in the Eastern Jin Dynasty,had full knowledge of the six classical works in his early years,with 道安出家,居庐山东林寺三十余年,名声颇大。慧远潜心研讨an special proficience in the doctrines of Laozi and Zhuangzi.Later he followed Dao'an and became a monk and lived at Donglinsi Temple 佛学,著文多篇,在《沙门不敬王者论》(《全晋文》161卷)situated in Mt.Lu for more than thirty years,earning a very great fame.Absorbed in the study of Buddhism,Huiyuan wrote many essays.In his "On Monks' Not Paying Tribute to the Monarch"(The  中提出“形尽神不灭”的论点, 其目的有二:一是要论证佛学Complete Works of the Jin Dynasty,Vol.161),he raised the thesis that "immortal is the spirit when the form (body) expires" for two purposes.One resided in expounding that the Buddhist realm of       的涅磐境界乃精神永恒不灭之表现,“以化尽为至极”,即以nirvana was the phenomenon that indicated spirit was eternal,"with expiration as consummation",i.e. regarding the entry into nirvana,after 肉体生命的死灭而入于涅磐为真正的永远。前形虽死,“神”the life in the human body died,as real eternity.The former form died,but "spirit" could be transferred to the latter in the unseen world,just 却可在冥冥中传于后形,犹前薪之火可以传于后薪,不绝地燃    as the fire of the former faggot to the latter,with the burning            下去。谁来使“神”由前形传于后形呢?自然是神通无比广大continuing forever.Who rendered it possible for "spirit" to go to the latter form?Buddha dharma whose magical power was infinitely      的佛法了。他的第二个目的,是为因果报应说提供理论根据。

great,of course.Sencondly,he aimed to provide a theoretical basis for the sermon karma.

       慧远的形神论,有两个重要特征,一是主张“神”不是               The spirit-form theory of Huiyuan was characterized by two        features:One consists in the proposition that "spirit" was not "form",“形”, “神”高于“形”;二是主张“神”可表“形”,with the former higher than the latter;the other in the proposition that "spirit" could represent "form" and be "transferred" to "form".     “传”于“形”。他对于形神关系的具体论述,包含着某些可Included in his specific exposition of the spirit-form relation were some rational elements capable of being interlinked with artistic

以和艺术创造相通的合理因素,对于东晋以至南北朝美学的发creation,which was immensely significant for the development of aesthetics in the Eastern Jin Dynasty,even for that in the Northern   展来说都具有重要意义。

and Southern Dynasties.

       由此可见,在东晋人物品藻和佛学研讨的氛围中,顾恺之          Thus is can be seen that,in the atmosphere of personage              appraisal and Buddhist studies in the Eastern Jin Dynasty,it is          首创以“形神”、 “传神”论画,是水到渠成,自然而然的事something very natural,just as "canal is formed when water comes",for Gu Kaizhi to first creatively employ the concepts "spirit and form" 情。不同的是,在慧远那里,“传神”是在佛教生死轮回的意and "conveying spirit" to comment on drawings.They differ,however,in that,with Huiyuan,the "conveyance of spirit" is used in the sense of 义上说的,指的是已死的“前形”将“神”传给已生的“后     Buddhist life-and-death transmigration,referring to the situation in which the dead "former form" transfers "spirit" to the new-born 形”;在顾的画论中则借指将所画人物的“神”,传给画面人  "latter form";but in Gu's comment on drawings,the concept is borrowed to refer to the case in which the "spirit" of the person under 物的“形”。顾又进而提出“以形写神”,在艺术理论上第一drawing is conveyed to the "form" of the figure in the picture.And Gu goes to a greater length by stating one is to "represent spirit with

次明确地区分了“形”与“神”,并且指出了“形”的描画是  "form",thus clearly distinguishing between "form" and "spirit" in artistic theory for the first time,and moreover,he pointed out that        为了“写神”,“形”对“神”处在从属地位。“形”的描画  "form" is drawn to "represent spirit",and that "form" is in a position subordinate to "spirit".The drawing of "form" is inseparable from the 不能脱离“写神”,脱离了“写神”的“形”不具有艺术的意

"representation of spirit",since the "form" divorced from the               "representation of spirit" does not possess any artistic significance and 义与价值。

value.

                                               

                                III

       在尔后的画论中,重神轻形的倾向愈来愈明显了。 如南齐          In the discussions on painting in later generations,the tendency of attaching importance to spirit rather than form became more and more conspicuous.Placed in the first place of "six ways" was the 谢赫《古画品录》所提出的“六法”,头一条就是“气韵,生动statement "Artistic conception(气韵),which consists in liveliness",raised by Xie He in the Southern Qi Dynasty in his  A Record of Comments on Ancient Paintings.He commented on the paintings of 是也”。在评顾骏之的画时并说:“神韵气力,不逮前贤;精Gu Junzhi by saying:"They are not as good as those produced by the former artists in romantic charm and energy although more refined 微谨细,有过前哲”。在评卫协的画时又说:“卫协之画,虽不and meticulous."Again,when commenting on the paintings by Wei Xie,he said:"Though not perfect in formal representation,the paintings 备该形妙,而妙有气韵,凌跨群雄,旷代绝笔。”唐张彦远    by Wei Xie are wonderful in artistic conception,overriding other rivaling artistic works in becoming matchless among his                《历代名画记》有云:“古之画或遗其形似而尚其气韵,以形contemporaries." Zhang Yanyuan,a well-known scholar in the Tang Dynasty,argued:"Mater paintings in ancient times would sometimes 似之外求其画,此难与俗人言也。今之画纵得形似,而气韵不ignore formal similarity while greatly valuing artistic conception,seeking after an artistic realm external to formal similarity,and it is hard to get common minds to see the true essence of this.Paintings of today may have arrived at formal similarity,but in them no artistic生,以气韵求其画,则形似在其间矣”。都是重神似,而不重 conception is to be perceived .Formal similarity will naturally come into existence when you pursue artistic conception in painting".All these remarks laid stress on spiritual similarity instead of on the         形体之“妙”的。

"marvelous exactness" of form and shape.

       到了苏轼那里,形似更进一步成了贬义辞:“论画以形               In comments of Su Shi,a great man of letters in the Tang Dynasty,formal similarity even became a derogative term:"If one 似,见与儿童邻”, 元代著名画家、诗人倪云林有“仆之所谓judges paintings by the standard of formal similarity,his idea will approach that of a child".The famous Yuan Dynasty painter and poet 画者不过逸笔草草,不求形似”之论,而不求形似一语,遂为Ni Yunlin argued:"To my mind,the so-called painting consists in nothing but something drawn with a cursory and leisurely brush,and no formal similarity is sought after",and soon the saying "No formal 画家唯一之原则,亦即为中国画精神之所寄。

similarity is sought after" became the sole principle advocated by painters,wherein the spirit of traditional Chinese paintings resides.

       由于绘画艺术直接、具体、感性的特点,早在六朝的画论           Since the art of painting was characterized by directness,concreteness and perceptibility,the importance of "conveying spirit"中, 传神对于艺术创作的重要性便明确地提出来了,而诗文论in artistic creation was raised as early as in the painting theory in the Six Dynasties;the poetry-prose theory,however,was quite a different 的情况却不同,落后于画论。在中唐以前,“形似”是被作为situation,lagging behind painting theory.Before the middle of the Tang Dynasty,"formal similarity" had been regarded as an ability 文学作品真切地描写自然景物的本领来看待的。将传神理论引demonstrated in truthfully depicting natural scenes and objects.It was Sikong Tu (837-908)in the Tang Dynasty that introduced the theory  入诗文论并对后世产生了重大影响的,是唐代的司空徒(837-   "conveying spirit" into the poetry-prose theory,whose contribution produced a momentous influence upon the later generations.

908)。 他继承和发扬了中唐皎然的“文外之旨”和李德裕的Inheriting and developing the viewpoints "yun wai zhi zhi"(purport external to the writing:韵外之旨)of Jiaoran in the Middle Tang and“文外之意”的观点,提出了诗的“韵味”问题,认为诗歌要  "wen wai zhi yi"(meaning external to the writing;文外之意)of Li Deyu,he raised the problem of "yun wei"(lingering charm;韵味)of 有“韵外之致”和“味外之味”。所谓“韵”就是诗歌的语poetry,believing poetry must possess "yun wai zhi zhi"(interest external to the verse;韵外之致)and "wei wai zhi wei"(fascination 言,“韵外之致”,则是要求诗歌要比它的语言描写本身能够external to fascination;味外之味).The so-called "yun" was just the language of poetry ,so the soncept "yun wai zhi yun" required poetry给人以更生动、更深远的东西,实即“神韵”。南宋严羽在to provide something that was more vivid and deepgoing than its verbal description,which was in fact "shen yun"(romantic charm).The Song 《沧浪诗话.诗辨》中,把传神强调到了无以附加的地步,所scholar Yan Yu,in his "Reflections on Poetry",contained in his  Cang-lang's Notes on Poets and Poetry,emphasized the conveyance of     谓“诗之极致有一,曰入神。诗而入神,至矣尽矣,蔑以

spirit in the extreme,saying "The ultimate realm of poetry resides in only one thing,i.e.entry into spirit.With entry into spirit in poetry writing,one reaches  the realm of consummation,which defies any

加矣”。清人王士祯又将它发展为“神韵说”。他推重司空图possibility of further improving."The Qing scholar Wang Shizhen developed it further into the "romantic charm theory".He held in the 所说的“不着一字,尽得风流”八字,其大旨也是尚神似,而highest esteem Sikong Tu's saying"No word is used,but all grace and charm gained",whose general meaning was also to hold spiritual

反对拘以形似。但由于王士祯完全离开了形似而强调神似,却similarity in esteem while objecting to being restricted by formal similarity.However,since he completely departed from formal similarity when emphasizing spiritual similarity,Wang Shizhen led art 把艺术引向了脱离现实的虚无缥缈的境地。

to an utterly visionary sphere which was divorced from reality.

       不过,唐宋人尚未明确用“神似”的说法来论诗画,多用         Men in Tang and Song Dynasties,however,had not used the theory of "spiritual similarity" in an explicit way for commenting upon“有神”、 “传神”、“神妙”来称谓,至元代刘将孙始用poetry and painting,and mostly employed "to connote spirit","to convey spirit"and "miraculously wonderful"to make a comment.It “神似”一词,他说:“学古人如传神,有得其形者,有得其was not until Yuan Dynasty that there emerged a scholar called Liu Jiangsun who used "spiritual similarity" for the first time,saying:"Learning from the ancient people is just like conveying spirit;Some have learnt the form,some the spirit,i.e.spiritual similarity;Although

神者,即神似,虽形不酷似,犹似也”(《肖达可文序》)

not closely similar in form,still,it is sort of similarity".(Preface to the Essay by Xiao Dake)

                                    

                     IV

       由此可见,翻译上的“重神似不重形似”是有所本的,真            Thus it can be seen from the above that the translative theory ——"Strive for similarity in spirit rather than similarity in form"——is deeply rooted,really leaving a distant source and a long stream behind个是源远流长。 由画论而诗文论,由诗文论而译论,其运行的it.Proceeding from a theory on painting to a theory on poetry and prose,and then to a theory on translation,the trail that it leaves is

轨迹清晰可见。

clearly recognizable.

       “传神”、“神似”是具有普遍意义的艺术美的标准,不           "Conveying spirit" and "spiritual similarity" is a criterion of artistic beauty with universal significance,true not only of poetry,     独诗画、翻译然, 也适用于其他多种艺术门类,如戏剧、音painting and translation,but of many other artistic departments,such as drama,music,and sculpture,just as Balzac says:"The task of art    乐、雕塑等。诚如巴尔扎克所说:“艺术的任务不在于摹写自does not lie in imitating natureOtherwise,a sculptor will be able to 然……要不然,一个雕塑家从女人身上脱下一个模子,就可以finish his work by removing a mould from the body of a woman.Well, 完成他的工作了。嗯,你试试看,从你爱人的那只手脱下一个you may have a try.You may remove a plaster model from your

石膏模型,你把它放在面前,那你看到的只是一只可怕的没有sweetheart's hand and put the product before your eyes.What you see will be nothing but a terrible,lifeless object,which is not similar at all.生命的东西,而且毫不相像。你必须找雕刻刀和艺术家,用不You have to find a burin and a sculptor,who will not exactly imitate,着一模一样的摹仿,却传达出生命的活跃”。(《西方古典作which is unnecessary,but convey the animation of life".(Discussion on 家谈文艺创作》)

Literary and Artistic Creation by Classical Western Authors)

       那么,“神”的确切含义究竟是什么呢?

       What then,is the exact meaning of "spirit"

      笼统说来,“神”指的是客观事物的内在本质和精神面              Generally speaking,"spirit" refers to the intrinsic essence,and          vigour and features of objective things:"The so-called spiritual

貌,“所谓神似, 就是高度概括出客观事物的内在本质,深similarity consists right in highly generalizing the intrinsic essence of objective things and profoundly revealing their vigour and features"(l 刻揭示出事物的精神面貌”(吕美生等:《美学百题》)。 Meisheng and others: One Hundred Questions on Aesthetics).

       综合前贤、今哲的有关著述,笔者以为, 神似可进一步分       On the basis of a comprehensive study of the expositions concerned by scholars today and yesterday,this author deems,

析为两个层次的要求:

spiritual similarity can be further taken apart into requirements at two levels:

 

                    1.反映事物的内在特征

         1.Reflecting the Intrinsic Features of Objects

 

       这包括人物的气质、个性、思想、感情、性格、神态、风Included under this are such aspects of figures as temperament,personality,ideology,feelings,disposition,manner and demeanor.It can 格等方面的内容。 亦可推而广之,表现花鸟鱼虫的活力和山岳also be expanded to mean the representation of the vitality of flowers,birds,fishes and insects and of the vigour of such objects in the world河流等世间万物的生机。如齐白石的《群雏游鱼图》,画鱼不 as mountains and rivers.On Qi Baishi's painting "Chickens and Swimming Fish",for instance,the fish is drawn without any water but画水,但觉得满幅都是水,可爱的游鱼,躯体轻盈,游戏水   the appreciator feels there is water everywhere.The lovely fish plays lithely in the water and forms a wonderful scene over-flowing with中,与岸边一群毛绒绒的小鸡构成盎然的情趣,达到形神兼备delightful interest,with a flock of downy chickens on the shore,thus attaining to an artistic realm wonderful both in spirit and in form.On的艺术境界。而另一些画,纸上画了许多水纹,鱼却悬在水some other paintings,although lots of ripples are put on the paper,the fish seems to be hung out of the water;therefore,no aesthtic appeal外,看后引不起美感。

is felt.

       表现在翻译上,神似指的是,必要时摆脱原文语言形式的Employed in the sphere of translation,spiritual similarity consists in,when necessary,getting rid of the fetters of the original linguistic form,束缚,如词汇、 语法、惯用法、修辞格等方面的羁绊,在深    e.g. trammels in such respects as lexicon,grammar,usage,and figures of speech,and in conveying the artistic realm of the original in       入、准确理解原文的基础上,用地道的译语传达出原文的艺术idiomatic target language on the basis of understanding the original 意境。如托马斯.哈代的《还乡》中对女主人公游苔莎有这样一profoundly and accuately.For instance,in Thomas Hardy's The Return 段描绘:

of the Native  there is a description of Eustacia,the heroine:

       "Her presence brought memories of such  things  as  Bourbon  roses,rubies,and tropical midnights;her moods recalled lotus eaters  and  themarch in 'Athalie';her motions,the ebb and flow of the  sea; her  voice,the viola."

       张谷若先生的译文:

       The version by Mr.Zhang Guruo goes as:

       “看见她的神情,就叫人想起布邦玫瑰、鲜红的宝石和热    带的中夜; 看见她的意态,就叫人想起食莲人和‘亚他利’里的进行曲;她的步伐就是海潮的荡漾,她的声音就是中提琴的幽婉。”

       这一小段文字的“神韵”,就是摹绘游苔莎令人心摇目荡           The "romantic charm" of this short section of description resides just in Eustacia's manner,posture and features,and sweet and           的神态、 体貌和婉转娇音,逐词翻译安能奏效?故张先生打破agreeable voice that put people into entranced raptures,therefore,how can a similar function be brought about on a word-for-word basis?  了原文形式的框架,重新组织句式,变动词性有之,增减词语Making such adaptations as amplification,omission as well as conversion in part of speech,Mr.Zhang breaks the framework of the 亦有之,却使译文达到了神似,并使之具备了一种对偶的语言original form and recasts the sentence pattern,thus rendering the version spiritually similar and possessed of a verbal beauty of

美。

antithesis.

       再如美国作家欧文有一篇小品文,又名《西敏寺》,以下           For another example,the American writer Washingtom Irving has an essay,alternately entitled "Westminster Abbey",whose first

是原文的第一段:

paragraph goes as follows:

     "On one of those sober and rather melancholy  days  in  the  latterpart of autumn,when the shadows of morning  and  evening  almost  mingletogether,and throw a gloom  over  the  decline  of  the  year, I  passedseveral hours in rambling about Westminster Abbey. There  was  somethingcongenial to the season in the mournful magnificence of  the  old  pile;and,as I passed its threshold,it seemed like  stepping  back  into  theregions of antiquity,and losing myself among the shades of former  ages."

       在今日世界社1958年出版的《美国散文选》中,夏济安先生        In  Selected American Essays,published by World Today

将此段译作:

Publsihing House in 1958,Mr.Xia Ji'an turns this section as:

     “时方晚秋,气象肃穆,略带忧郁,早晨的阴影和黄昏的阴影, 几乎连接一起,不可分别,岁云将暮,终日昏暗,我就在这么一天,到西敏寺去散步了几个钟头。古寺巍巍,森森然似有鬼气,和阴沉的季候正好调和;我跨进大门,觉得自己已经置身远古,相忘于古人的鬼影之中了。”(转引自《翻译研究论文集》林以亮文)

       (As is cited in the essay by Lin Yiliang included in  Collected Theses on Translation Studies)

       在这里,译者没有拘泥原文的语序、用语,而是充分发挥          Here,the translator does not stick rigidly to the original word     order and expressions,but brings into full play such TL superiority as译语的语言优势, 如句读短,用语简洁等,并综合运用增词、brevity of sentences and phrases,and conciseness of expressions,and achieves spiritual similarity by deviating from the original form on the 减词、词类转换等技巧,离形得似,不但完整地表达出原文的strength of synthetically employing such techniques as amplification,omission and conversion in part of speech,thus not only representing 意义,而且将其铿锵的音调,肃穆森然的气氛,即此段之神   the original meaning completely,but conveying the majestic and sonorous tone,solumn and awe-inspiring atmosphere,i.e. the romantic韵,也转输给读者。形容词mournful 不译作“悲壮的”而转译charm of the section,to the reader.That the adjective "mournful" is not translated into “悲壮的”but converted into the noun “鬼气”,and作名词“鬼气”, shades增词译作“鬼影”,颇有助于这种气 "shades" amplified into “鬼影”,greatly assists the reflection of such 氛的反映。

a special atmosphere.

 

                  2.反映艺术家对生活的理解

        2.Reflecting the Artist's Comprehension of Life

 

       如果是作画,便应从二度空间的实际出发,从运动的过程           In the case of painting,one should start from the reality of two-dimentional space,from the process of movement,and reflect his  

着眼, 把画家对客观事物发展变化着的全局的“统摄感”、

"sense of government","understanding" and "awareness" of the whole situation of the objective things which is developing and changing.“理解”、“觉悟”反映出来,也就是说,要表现画面上看不 In other words,he is to represent things unseen from the surface of the picture by profoundly reflecting the universal links that objectively到的东西,深刻反映客观世界本来存在着的普遍联系。如齐白exist in the objective world.On Qi Baishi's painting  Frogs' Croaking Come Ten Miles Away down the Mountain Spring,for instance,you 石的《蛙声十里出山泉》,画面虽无青蛙只有蝌蚪,但却情趣cannot discern any frogs,seeing only tadpoles,but the painter's comprehension and sense of government is reflected in a satisfactory盎然地把画家对整个生活的理解和统摄感,完满地表述出来,and fascinating way,rendering the picture rich in animation: it seems that the croaking of frogs is heard from the sight of tadpoles,just as

使画面非常富有生气,人们由蝌蚪似乎听到了青蛙的鸣声,正the saying goes,"Void and solid mutually produces;where nothing is 所谓“虚实相生,无画处皆成妙境。”

drawn wonder forms".

       在翻译上,这层意思,更明确地说, 是指从整体上领会并          This layer of meaning,in translation,to put it in clearer terms,lies in understanding the original author's intention as a whole and

在具体语句的翻译中体现原作者的意图。如京剧《凤还巢》中embodying it in the translation of specific sentences.For instance,in the Beijing opera  The Phoenix Returns Home  there  is such a section 有这样一段对话:

of dialogue:

       程雪雁:咱们两人可以称得起郎才女貌。

       朱焕然:我看是豺狼虎豹。

       这是一对丑夫妻在互相揶揄。“豺狼虎豹”和“郎才女        This is a situation in which an ugly couple are didiculing each other.The key point that the translator faces here is that  豺狼虎豹  (chai 貌”发音近似,又是譬喻,是译者面临的重要关节。译者魏莉

lang hu bao) and  郎才女貌  (lang cai n< mao) are close in pronunciation and thorm a metaphor.On the basis of the plot of the 莎女士,根据全剧剧情,准确把握作者意图后,采用巧妙的变whole opera,Mrs.Wei Lisha makes an inginious adaptation,after accuratley getting at the author's intention,and gives an appropriate  通办法,对其作了妥善处理。

treatment:

       Xueyan:The two of us will  provide  a  shining  example  of  femalebeauty at home and male service to the state.

       Zhu:It looks to me more like "female authority  at  home  and  maleservice to his mate".(参见张今《文学翻译原理》175页)

   (See Zhang Jin's  Principles Governing Literary Translation,p175)

可谓令人赞叹的意形得似的神妙译笔。

This can be praised as a wonderfu version that achieves similarity in both meaning and form.

       再如聂华苓与其夫保罗.安格尔将《毛泽东诗词. 重阳》          For another example,Nie Hualing and her husband Paul Angel Translates the line战地黄花分外香 in "The Double Ninth Festival" in 中的“战地黄花分外香”译作:Battlefields fragrant with   Poems by Mao Zedong  into "Battlefields fragrant with yellow     ".(as is quoted in Xu Yuanchong's  The Art of Translation)

yellow flowers(转引自许渊冲《翻译的艺术》)这是又一个This is another brilliant example.With only fove words,the translated 绝佳的例子。译文煞是精练,全行只五个字。“分外”二字未line is really very terse.Since the word 分外has not been given an equivalent,some one may pick faults and criticise that this is

译出,有人或许要指摘这是“任意略去原文字句”,其实这恰  "wantonly omitting the original words and phrases",but actually it is just where the translator exercises his inventive mind.Based on a

是译者匠心独到之处。她在深刻体会诗人颂扬革命战争的主题profound understanding of the theme in which the poet eulogizes the revolutionary war,she does not say the yellow flowers are fragrant,的基础上,不说黄花香,而说战场香。若整个战场都香了,那黄   but the battlefield is fragrant.If the whole of the battlefield is fragrant,how can the yellow flowers be devoid of the quality of being "extraordinarily fragrant"?Without seeking after the surface accuracy,话虽欲不“分外香”岂可得乎?这种译法,不求字面的精确, this way of translation is inflexible in reflecting the illocutionary meaning,where the spirit of "spiritual similarity" resides.If the line    而执着于反映言外之意,  正是“神似”的精神所在。  若译作   were translated as "On the battlefields yellow flowers are

"On the battlefields yellow flowers are extraordinarily

extraordinarily fragrant" the poetic interest would be totally lost

fragrant",形虽酷似,然诗味丧失殆尽矣。

although the product is exactly similar in form to the original.

 

                               

                         V

 

       翻译是一门语言艺术,译作所蕴含的艺术美, 是译者按照          Translation is an art of languages,and the artistic beauty that the translation possesses a product that the translator creatively shapes“美的规律”进行创造性劳动的产物。从原作到译作是一个再according to "aesthetic laws".When he turns an original into a translation,what the translator experiences is a recreative process.创造的过程,若无创造的因素在里面,便谈不上译作的艺术性。Without the process of creation,the artistry of a translation would be out of the question.The significance of the proposition "Strive for “重神似不重形似”的意义,正在于它毫不含糊地强调了这一similarity in spirit rather than similarity in form" lies exactly in its 点。

unequivocal emphasis on this point.

       白石老人总结自己的创作经验,指出作画贵在“似与不似           Summing up his creative experience,the revered old artist Baishi points out that the key to painting resides "between similarity and 之间”, 就是要在形似的前提下,经过捕捉、提炼和概括,鲜dissimilarity",i.e.,with the prerequisite of formal similarity,giving distinct prominence to the romantic charm of the object,recognized through seizing,extracting and generalizing.The vitality of the original 明地突出对象的神韵。原作的生命力,来自对客观事物反映、takes its source from the truthfulness and naturalness with which the objective things are reflected and described.The difference between描写的真与自然。译语和源语的不同,正在于词汇、句法、惯the SL and TL coinsides precisely with their disparity in such respects as lexicon,syntax,usage and rhetoric.If the translator is fettered by the用法、修辞等形式的迥异。故译者如被原文语言形式所困,跟formal features of the original and apes them at every step,truthfulness and naturalness will depart from the version and the      在其后亦步亦趋,译作就会失去真与自然,消泯生命的源泉,source of life dry up,presenting a "dead look" or a "false appearance";现出一种“死相”、“假相”,哪里还谈得上忠实原作?

if so,how can he on the earth realize faithfulness to the original?

       当然,任何“虚”都是以“实”为基础的,神似也是以形           Of course,any "void" is based on "solid",so is spiritual similarity 似为根据的。 只有形似而缺乏神似的译品固然缺乏生命力,但on formal.A translated text with only formal similarity but without spiritual similarity,will indeed lack vitality,but without similarity in

神似如果离开了形似,就无所依托。因此,要“以形写神”,form spiritual similarity will certainly be deprived of its basis.Therefore,one is to "present spirit by portraying appearance",in other通过形似表现出神似,使译品形神兼备,浑然一体。小赫胥黎words,to realize spiritual similarity through formal similarity,rendering the translated product adequate both in form and in spirit.There is a 有一篇小说:Two or Three Graces,描写一个叫Grace的女

story written by Huxley,junior,entitled "Two or Three Graces",which describes a woman called Grace,who is completely devoid of

人,根本没有个性,嫁了三次,她的性情、嗜好,以及人生观personality since she marries three times and her temperoment,likes as well as outlook on life always change with the husband she newly 都随着她新嫁的丈夫而改变。一位译者把这个题目译作《二三marries.One translator turns the title into 《二三其德》(Er San Qi 其德》,女主角的名字译作“其德”。“德”暗示Grace De),with the heroine's name put as “其德”.“德”implies "Grace" “二三其德”源出《诗经》,后来变为成语,说一个人不专

and “二三其德”can be traced back to Book of Poems.The phrase has become an idiom ever since and when people talk of one who is unfaithful he/she will be described with the expression “二三其 一,就说他“二三其德”。这可以说是形神兼顾的佳例,风味德”.It can be considered as a fine example with both spiritual and formal similarity,carrying with it a lingering appeal,as if helped by the 隽永,似有神助。

Spirit.

 

           (原载《中国翻译》1993年第5期)

        (Originally carried in  Chinese Translators Journal,1993,no.5)

2014年02月16日

译学词典中条目的内在系统
“翻译标准多元互补论”研究

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